Robert Clive was born on 29th September 1725 and died on 22nd November 1774.
He was also referred to as “Clive of India” – the place he established the East India Firm’s (EIC) army and industrial energy in South India and Bengal. Clive was born in Shropshire to an outdated and outstanding household. When he was 18, he was despatched to Madras as a clerk and bookkeeper within the East India Firm.
Industrial and political rivalry between the French and the British in southern India sparked an curiosity in Clive. He volunteered for army service and took part in a few battles. In 1748 at Pondicherry he distinguished himself proper earlier than the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended hostilities. He was appointed to captain of commissary to produce the provisions of the troops.
Clive set out and led an expedition to Trichinopoly or Tiruchirappalli in 1751. The British Candidate for “nawab” or ruler, Mohammad Ali had been besieged by Chanda Sahib — the French candidate. Clive had solely three discipline items, 200 European and 300 Indian troops. He seized Chanda Sahib’s capital – Arcot forcing Chanda Sahib to divert his 10,000 males from Trichinopoly.
Robert Clive was in a position to withstand the 50-day siege till the reinforcements arrived. He started guerrilla warfare ways towards the French and the French-supported troops and shortly the French needed to withdraw. A truce was signed in 1754, formally recognizing Mohammed Ali as the brand new ruler. Because of this, by 1765 the British had appreciable affect over the emperor in Delhi.
Robert Clive’s returned to England and ran for Parliament however failed. He then sailed again to India in 1755 – this time because the governor of Fort St. David, a lieutenant colonel within the British Royal Military.
Suraja Dowla, a brand new nawab, captured Calcutta – the principal metropolis of Bengal and essentially the most beneficial buying and selling heart in Indian in 1756. Clive led a reduction expedition from Madras in October and by February the East India Firm’s privileges have been taken again. In June of 1758, Clive defeated Suraja on the Battle of Plassey and have become EIC’s governor and grasp of Bengal. Clive’s new place allowed him to bolster the authority of Mir Jafar, a brand new nawab. They have been in a position to launch profitable army campaigns towards the French and cease the Dutch enlargement.
Robert Clive returned to England in 1760 along with his declining well being. He was knighted, made a member of the Parliament and was given Irish peerage. He needed to return to Calcutta as governor and commander-in-chief due to chaos and financial problems in Bengal. He restored order by a sequence of administrative reforms. He additionally reorganized the corporate’s military.
With order restored, Robert Clive left India in February 1767. The corruption within the East India Firm remained, nevertheless, and the corporate appealed to the British authorities to reserve it from chapter. In 1772, Clive’s enemies in Parliament had constructed up a case that mentioned he was liable for the state of affairs. Clive was compelled to defend himself earlier than Parliament. Though exonerated, he dedicated suicide on 22 November 1774.