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Nov 7, 2019
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Production Technology of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.

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1.
Widespread title: Safflower
Botanical title: Carthamus tinctorius Linn.
Household: Asteraceae
Transliteration: Gur-gum

Description
Erect annual thistle like herb, stem white and powerful, as much as 1.5 m tall, branched in direction of the apex. Leaves spiny, rectangular or ovate-lanceolate, glabrous and alternate, spinose-toothed with the higher leaves clasping the stem. Flowers are borne on heads or capitula arising from the highest of branches (1-5 heads / plant), with yellow, orange, purple or white corollas surrounded by clusters of leafy spiny bracts. Fruits or seeds (achenes) are white, 6-7 mm lengthy, shiny and virtually four-sided in form.

Makes use of
Petals
Used as diuretic, an support to digestion, weight reduction, to calm nerves and sooth hysteria; helps the center and liver; helps promote circulation, dissolves clots, and induce menstruation; used to deal with put up youngster delivery pains, stiffness and ache in joints and inside bleeding. Will be taken sizzling to provide sturdy perspiration as a treatment for chilly. Petals are one of many chief substances used within the formulation of Tsheringma Natural Tea produced by Institute for Conventional Drugs Providers (ITMS). It’s also used an alternative to actual saffron (Crocus sativus = drezang).

Seeds / oils
Seed is eaten roasted or fried and used for chutney preparations. Oil extracted from the seed is extremely nutritious because of its low ldl cholesterol content material. Oil incorporates larger proportion of important unsaturated fatty acids than different vegetable oils.

Different makes use of
Tender shoots might be taken as salad. Meal or seedcake could be very nutritious feed for livestock.

Germplasm
Origins: (a) Ethiopia and Afghanistan; (b) India and Myanmar
Many cultivars differing in flower coloration, diploma of spininess, head measurement, oil content material, resistance to ailments.

Local weather and soil
Safflower is grown as summer time crop in areas of medium altitude as winter crop in low altitudes; is customized to dry land or irrigated cropping system. Not appropriate in areas with rainfall above 1000 mm. Mild, effectively drained soils with a pH of about 7 is discovered to be greatest. Crop is inclined to elevated humidity or extended waterlogged circumstances, notably in the course of the flowering season. Dry circumstances are favorable for flower improvement. Thrives effectively as a winter crop within the South (Tsirang) and as a summer time crop in Western Bhutan (Paro / Thimphu).

Sowing and Planting
Sowing time
Subject is ready by plowing a few times till high quality texture is achieved. Elevate beds at 1 m width holding the lengths as permitted by the sphere. Irrigate the sphere previous to sowing whether it is dry.
Sowing is carried out within the months of April-may and September -October within the areas of medium altitude and low altitude respectively. Sowing time must be adjusted to keep away from rainfall throughout blooming stage. Presoaking of seed for 24 hours is usually recommended to make sure good germination. Seed charge varies from 17-20 kg / ha.
Sowing Distances:
• Row to row: 20 cm = 5 furrows / mattress
• Plant to plant: 10 cm
• Depth: 2.5 cm
Manures and fertilizer: Apply Farm yard manure when vegetation begin to type buds to extend flower manufacturing. Add 10 tons of FYM.
Cultural practices
Safflower could be very delicate to weed competitors throughout its rosette stage; subsequently preserve vegetation weed free throughout this vital part (weeding a minimum of twice after germination and after 4-leaves stage). An essential operation clipping to induce flowering is carried out after two months of plant improvement.

Harvesting petals
Petal harvest begins 5 months from sowing. Petals are cleanly nipped with the assistance of scissors at their clump three days after bloom. We advocate to repeat petal harvest after 2 to three days.
Harvest most popular throughout morning hours to realize max. Substances and coloration. Unfold petals on a clear tarpaulin and dry underneath shade. Pack in air tight moisture free containers.

Yield

Highest yield of 120 kg / acre proven in third week of March as proven in graph.

Harvesting seeds
Uproot ripened vegetation after approx. 6 months when stems & leaves seem yellowish / brown. Heap within the filed for few days till totally dry. Handbook threshing & winnowing advisable to acquire clear seed.

Pests and ailments
Alternaria sp .: rotting of roots in reference to water logging
o Seed choice (choose wholesome seeds)
o Rogue out contaminated vegetation
o Keep away from water logging

Yield and revenue
Petals as much as 124 kg / acre (summer time crop)
Seed: 680 kg / acre (winter crop)

2.
Widespread title: Caraway
Botanical title: Carum carvi L.
Household: Umbelliferae
Transliteration: – 'goned'

Description
Caraway is an erect herb with thick tuberous rootstocks, rising as much as 80 cm in peak with slender grooved leafy stems. It’s a biennial crop. Throughout the first yr a rosette of darkish inexperienced, finely lower, feathery leaves is fashioned and solely within the second yr the flowering and fruiting takes place. Flowers produced on umbels, flowers in late spring.

Elements used: fruits

Makes use of
Used fro flavoring kids's drugs, meats and confectionery merchandise; as an antidote to flatulence and support to digestion; helps in respiratory, eye & urinary issues, additionally utilized in mouthwash and gargle preparations in addition to in perfumery business; regionally used as condiments and spices. Caraway oil is rubbed on pores and skin ti enhance complexion. Caraway 'goned' seed (fructus carvi) is a vital ingredient of the Bhutanese Conventional Drugs in addition to an essential spice in Europe, the US and Australia. Six formulations of the ITMS, eg: Bi-ma-la, Agar-35, Tsa-kar-juk-pa and so on.

Habitat: Average temperate to alpine local weather. Frequent close to human settlements, tough grazeland; 2000-4150 masl.

Location: Ha, Thimphu, Paro areas, Higher Moc hu and Kulong Chu areas.

Domesticated / wild: semi domesticated

Advisable areas of cultivation: Ha, Bumthang, Lingshi and Paro.

Distribution
Caraway (Carum carvi) is extensively distributed within the temperate areas of North and Center Europe, Asia and Africa. It’s present in wild in north Himalayan area. It’s cultivated virtually all through the northern and central Europe, primarily Holland and central Asia. In India it’s cultivated as a winter crop within the plains and as summer time crops in hills of Kashmir and Kumaon, garhwal and Uttranchal.
Wild or semi-cultivated caraway present in Bhutan round settlements of Soe and Lingshi at altitudes between 2400 to 4000 masl.

Local weather
The crop requires a dry temperate local weather and thrives effectively in moist tilled soils wealthy in humus at an elevation of 3000-4000 m. The crop grows as an annual one in plains and as a perennial within the hills. Caraway is grown as a summer time crop at locations 2000-4000 m masl. Excessive temperature should not required within the consequent phases of improvement; a day by day imply temperature of 16-20 oC is advantageous on the time of flowering and seed setting. It’s delicate to the provision of sunshine particularly within the first yr.

Soil
Caraway grows effectively on quite a lot of soils. Sandy loam soils wealthy in natural matter are most popular. The best yield might be obtained when cultivated in deep, humid (though with out floor water) medium soils. Dry sandy soils, areas the place water accumulates and arid soils should not appropriate for the cultivation of caraway.

Cultivation
Vegetation are raised both from seeds. Plow twice & take away weeds fastidiously. Apply enough manure (as much as 15 tons of FYM / acre) and put together a high quality floor for sowing. Seeds are sown immediately within the subject both by broadcasting or sown on traces 2-Three cm deep, 20-30 cm aside @ 1.Three kg / acre throughout months of March and April. After germination when the plantlets are about 5-6 cm tall and have 6-7 leaves, skinny out the seedlings to a spacing of 30-40 cm. Weed commonly and irrigate each two weeks in dry months. The vegetation over winter and re-emerge subsequent spring (second yr). When vegetation are about 10 cm tall (April) apply effectively matured compost or FYM as a facet dressing after a spherical of weeding.

Harvest & Put up-harvest Operations
Harvesting is finished by chopping under the bottom department or pulling up the plant. Keep away from abrupt shaking to forestall seed shattering. Harvest throughout early hours of the day. In subtropical areas the place the crop is planted in autumn, it’s prepared for harvesting in March -April, whereas in temperate areas the plant flowers solely after winter is over. It matures within the subsequent yr in July after 15 months. The crop is harvested when the oldest seed has turned brown.
Dry in bundles in shade on clear plastic sheet / tarpaulin / fabric. Shake or thresh plant to take away the seeds.

Storage
Usually it’s stord in darkish and funky place in aluminum containers.

Worth addition
Excessive worth carvone might be produced utilizing fractional column.

Yield: 160 – 400 kg / acre
Market shops: ITMS, Spices Producers in Europe.

3.
Widespread Identify: Kuth / Costus
Botanical Identify: Saussurea lappa Clarke

Household: Asteraceae
Transliteration: Ru-ta

Elements used: Root
Description: Perennial herb, 4-5 ft tall, sturdy stem (annual), basal leaves pinnate, lobed terminally, as much as 40 cm lengthy; stem leaves 30 cm lengthy, total or irregularly toothed
Roots have a pungent style together with a attribute aromatic fragrant odor. Flowers purple (July – Aug).

Medicinal Makes use of: Used as tonic; used towards bronchial asthma, Cough, cholera, bronchitis; It has aphrodisiac and anthelmintic properties, used as insecticide and pesticide; roots are extremely fragrant are utilized in incense making. Saussurea lappa oil is banned within the EU to be used as fragranc;: e because of cutaneous toxicities.

Habitat: Woodland, moist open slopes, and shady locations and edges; 2000-3300 masl.
Domesticated / Wild: Domesticated.
Advisable areas of cultivation: Bumthang, Ha, Paro, T / phu.
Advisable manufacturing applied sciences:
Propagated by root segments and seed.
Soil and Local weather: Nicely drained sandy to loamy soil of nice depth is taken into account greatest because the plant develops lengthy and thick roots. It requires a cool and humid local weather.
Subject Preparation
Put together subject by plowing twice & crushing clods into high quality texture, add enough FYM previous to sowing, irrigate the sphere earlier than sowing whether it is dry,
Nursery Preparation
Begin Nursery in well-prepared fields in March-April. Apply enough FYM earlier than sowing.Sow seeds at 2-Three cm depth (2 seeds / gap) at a row spacing of 30 cm x 30 cm. Seed charge: 1.5 Kg / Acre.

Subject Planting
Transplant when the plantlets are sufficiently developed (2-Three leaved stage) into well-manured raised beds of 1.5 m breadth and lengths as permitted by the sphere / space.
Preserve a plant spacing of 50 x 50 cm to allow optimum leaf improvement. Transplanting is advisable within the months of June – July.
Within the absence of rainwater for 3-5 days after transplanting.

Cultural operations
Weed a minimum of twice after transplanting and as soon as after 4-leaved stage to maintain the vegetation weed free. The plant dries up on the finish of the primary yr rising season (4-5 go away stage throughout fall) .Earth up & fertilize with FYM / leaf compost throughout the next spring when the plant begins sprouting. Present gentle irrigation.

Harvest & Pot harvest know-how
Harvest & Put up Harvest
The crops come into fruiting inside two -three years relying on the weather conditions. Harvest the roots in Oct- Nov of the second rising season. Dig out roots, wash totally, chop to 1 to 2 cm slices, dry in shade on a tarpaulin or mat.

Yield & Market Standing
Common yield: 300 Kg dried and ~ 650 – 780 Kg contemporary roots / acre.Greater than 100 farmers cultivating in eight districts are cultivating Ruta. It has each exterior & inside market alternatives, natural manufacturing can add worth
Important oil extraction can add value-Nu 30,000 per liter of oil, minimal or no pest & illness assault, manufacturing value is economical when it comes to return. Nevertheless, state of affairs is surplus manufacturing for Bhutan's demand and fewer quantity of manufacturing for export. Farmers are conditioned to the excessive costs provided by the ITMS vis-à-vis prevailing worldwide market charges. Oil banned in Europe owing to its allergy inducing properties. It is without doubt one of the threatened and CITES protected species.

4.
Widespread Identify: Tibetan Dragons Head
Botanical Identify: Dracocephalum tanguiticum Maxim
Household: Lamiaceae
Transliteration: Ti-yang-ku

Description: Perennial herb, 30-60cm tall. Stem quadrangular, darkish inexperienced with darkish purple tinge and sparsely lined with easy white hairs. Leaves reverse, pinnatified, elliptic-ovate, 2-4cm, glabrous. Flowers in terminal spikes, floral whorls 2-6 flowered, corolla 20- 27mm lengthy, pubescent. Could-July / Purple.

Elements used: Complete plant (aerial elements).
Medicinal Makes use of: Used for abdomen ache, liver and lung illnesses; improves the blood, heals wounds and dries up watery pus.
Habitat: Stony slopes of mountain streams, pebbles, and generally on sandy mountain slopes; in wheat fields, alongside trails in addition to gardens in Tibet & the Himalayan areas; 3000-4200 masl. Tiyanku is NOT present in Bhutan in wild.
Location: Launched
Domesticated / Wild: Domesticated.
Advisable areas of cultivation: Efficiently cultivated in Soe and Lingsh.

Advisable manufacturing applied sciences: Propagated by seed and cuttings.

Soil and Local weather: Finest in Nicely-drained moisture retaining soil.
Nursery elevating
Nursery preparation in early spring (March / April), seeds are sown at 0.5 cm deep rows.
Germination after 30 to 40 days.
Seed charge: 200 to 300 g / acre.

Transplanting
When vegetation are about 7 cm tall, transplant into well-prepared subject.
Row to row distance: 30 cm
Plant to plant distance: 15 cm

Vegetative Propagation
Propagation by stem cuttings is greatest throughout April-Could.
Advisable size of the chopping is 5-6 cm with a minimum of two nods.
Rooting of stem cuttings in particular person pots underneath gentle shade. As soon as absolutely rooted plantlets are transplanted at a distance of 20 x 20 cm.

2nd Yr and onwards
Being perennial, vegetation will sprout in April of the next yr. Lower dried stems from earlier yr, earth up and apply enough FYM on the base adopted by irrigation.
Vegetation will flower from Could onwards.

Harvest and postharvest know-how
Harvesting time differs based on altitude & local weather. Aerial elements are harvested in June / July when 50% of vegetation are in bloom. Early morning harvest is most popular to protect most constituents. Vegetation are both unfold on a tarpaulin and dried underneath shade or hung in bundles and dried underneath the roof. The crop might be harvested over Three to five years if effectively maintained.

Yields: 600 to 800 kg of dried herb / acre

Market Shops: No identified outdoors as of now.

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